14 junho 2014

Entenda como funciona o código de barras

Sabe o que significam aquelas barras pretas que ficam na embalagem de um produto?
Como funciona o código de barras?

Pois bem, caros leitores: na verdade são o código de barras, que trata-se de uma representação gráfica de dados numéricos ou alfanuméricos vindo impressa logo abaixo dele.


Todos aqueles traços - alguns fininhos, outros mais grossos - armazenam uma série de informações que são convertidas (ou traduzidas) por um tipo de scanner - o leitor de código de barras -, que emite um raio vermelho que percorre todas as barras. Onde a barra for escura, a luz é absorvida e onde a barra for clara (espaços), a luz é refletida novamente para o leitor. 

História do código de barras

Tudo começou com um pacote de chicletes, acredita? Sim, estou me referindo àquela 'borrachinha de mascar'. 

O sistema foi criado nos Estados Unidos em 1973, mas somente  em 1974, um cliente do supermercado Marsh's na cidade de Troy, no estado estadunidense de Ohio, fez a primeira compra de um produto com código de barras. Era um pacote com dez chicletes Wrigley's Juicy Fruit Gum. Isso deu início a uma nova era na venda a varejo, acelerando as caixas e dando às companhias um método mais eficiente para o controle do estoque. O pacote de chiclete ganhou seu lugar na história e serviu como ponto de partida para o desenvolvimento dos códigos.

No Brasil, o Código Nacional de Produtos (código de barras) foi introduzido formalmente em 1984.

Entendendo como funciona o código de barras

Iremos entender agora, toda a estrutura numérica e alfanumérica

Enquanto os americanos usam uma seqüência numérica de 12 dígitos, os europeus optaram por um padrão com 13, que foi adotado no resto do mundo.

Linguagem cifrada: Sistema mais comum, desenvolvido na Europa, usa 13 algarismos para cada produto. Estas, são uma representação gráfica do código binário. Cada traço preto ou branco equivale a um bit (1 ou 0, respectivamente) e cada algarismo é sempre representado por sete bits. Uma barra escura mais grossa que as outras é, na verdade, a somatória de vários traços pretos. O mesmo princípio vale para as barras brancas.

AVISO INICIAL
Essas três primeiras barras mais compridas (uma branca no meio de duas pretas) são uma sinalização, indicando que a seguir vem o código do produto. As barras e seus respectivos algarismos não ficam alinhados - por isso o número 7 vem antes das barras de sinalização

REGISTRO NACIONAL
Esses três primeiros números (789) indicam que o produto foi cadastrado no Brasil, apesar de não necessariamente ter sido fabricado aqui. Cada país tem uma combinação própria. A da Argentina, por exemplo, é 779

RG DO FABRICANTE
Em sua segunda seqüência de números, que pode variar de quatro a sete algarismos, vem a identificação da empresa fabricante. Esse número é fornecido por uma organização internacional, a EAN, que faz o controle para que não sejam distribuídos números iguais

RG DO PRODUTO
Em sua terceira sequência, identificamos o produto em si. Tal numeração varia conforme o tipo, o tamanho, a quantidade, o peso e a embalagem do produto - uma Coca-Cola em lata, por exemplo, tem uma seqüência diferente de uma em garrafa

CHECAGEM FINAL
O último número é um dígito verificador. Quando feita a leitura de todo o código do produto, o computador faz um cálculo complexo, somando, dividindo e multiplicando os dígitos anteriores. Se a leitura estiver correta, o resultado desse cálculo estranho é igual ao do dígito verificador.

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35 comentários

Muito legal o código de Barras, ele facilita principalmente na hora de comprar em supermercados ou na hora de pagar um boleto ou fatura, pois a leitura do código de barras é feita de maneira mais rápida quando a digitalização manual. Quem trabalha em caixa sabe o quão útil é o código de barras.
excelente post Charliton.

Saudações Kelven,

Procurei enriquecer ao máximo as informações para que todos possam entender a origem e o funcionamento dos códigos de barras. Obrigado por interagir conosco!

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